FLOWS: Core Benefits

The Core Benefits Framework identifies 21 ecological benefits that are consistent across the reviewed frameworks: 19 cornerstone ecosystem services and two foundational real asset benefits.

Ecosystem Services Core BenefitsReal Asset Core Benefits

Raw Materials

Land Utilization


Resource Utilization


Water Abundance

Healthy Soils

Medicinal & Genetic

Climate Stability

Clean Air

Clean Water

Risk Resilience


Erosion Control

Pest & Disease Control


Recreation & Experiences

Research & Learning

Aesthetic & Sensory

Art & Inspiration

Existence & Legacy

Supporting materials, scope and methodological notes are found in the Ecosystem Services and Real Assets Appendices

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