IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology 2.0 (IUCN GET 2.0)

The IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology 2.0 offers a structured classification system that categorizes ecosystems based on their ecological functions and species assemblages. BASIN honed in on Levels 2 and 3, the system identifies "Functional Biomes" and "Ecosystem Functional Groups" as critical components within broader realms like terrestrial, freshwater, and marine. Functional Biomes share major ecological drivers that regulate key functions, while Ecosystem Functional Groups within these biomes share common drivers that lead to similar biotic traits. This hierarchical framework is essential for understanding the traits and drivers that underlie ecosystem functionality, thus aiding in ecosystem management and conservation efforts. This classification is crucial given the human influence on ecosystems, many of which are at risk of collapse, impacting biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being.

SEEA EA, TNFD, and IUCN Red List utilize and reference IUCN GET 2.0

Realms, Biomes, and Ecosystem Functional Groups


T1 Tropical-subtropical forests

  • T1.1 Tropical-subtropical lowland rainforests

  • T1.2 Tropical-subtropical dry forests and thickets

  • T1.3 Tropical-subtropical montane rainforests

  • T1.4 Tropical heath forests

T2 Temperate-boreal forests & woodlands

  • T2.1 Boreal and temperate high montane forests and woodlands

  • T2.2 Deciduous temperate forests

  • T2.3 Oceanic cool temperate rainforests

  • T2.4 Warm temperate laurophyll forests

  • T2.5 Temperate pyric humid forests

T3 Shrublands & shrubby woodlands

  • T3.1 Seasonally dry tropical shrublands

  • T3.2 Seasonally dry temperate heaths and shrublands

  • T3.3 Cool temperate heathlands

  • T3.4 Rocky pavements, screes and lava flows

T4 Savannas and grasslands

  • T4.1 Trophic savannas

  • T4.2 Pyric tussock savannas

  • T4.3 Hummock savannas

  • T4.4 Temperate woodlands

  • T4.5 Temperate subhumid grasslands

T5 Deserts and semi-deserts

  • T5.1 Semi-desert steppes

  • T5.2 Thorny deserts and semi-deserts

  • T5.3 Sclerophyll hot deserts and semi-deserts

  • T5.4 Cool deserts and semi-deserts

  • T5.5 Hyper-arid deserts

T6 Polar-alpine

  • T6.1 Ice sheets, glaciers and perennial snowfields

  • T6.2 Polar-alpine rocky outcrops

  • T6.3 Polar tundra and deserts

  • T6.4 Temperate alpine grasslands and shrublands

  • T6.5 Tropical alpine grasslands and shrublands

T7 Intensive land-use systems

  • T7.1 Annual croplands

  • T7.2 Sown pastures and fields

  • T7.3 Plantations

  • T7.4 Urban and industrial ecosystems

  • T7.5 Derived semi-natural pastures and oldfields


S1 Subterranean lithic systems

  • S1.1 Aerobic caves

  • S1.2 Endolithic systems

  • S2.1 Anthropogenic subterranean voids

SF1 Subterranean freshwaters

  • SF1.1 Underground streams and pools

  • SF1.2 Groundwater ecosystems

SF2 Anthropogenic subterranean freshwater

  • SF2.1 Water pipes and subterranean canals

  • SF2.2 Flooded mines and other voids

SM1 Subterranean tidal systems

  • SM3.1 Anchialine caves

  • SM3.2 Anchialine pools

  • SM3.1 Sea caves


TF1 Palustrine wetlands

  • TF1.1 Tropical flooded forests and peat forests

  • TF1.2 Subtropical/temperate forested wetlands

  • TF1.3 Permanent marshes

  • TF1.4 Seasonal floodplain marshes

  • TF1.5 Episodic arid floodplains

  • TF1.6 Boreal, temperate and montane peat bogs

  • TF1.7 Boreal and temperate fens

F1 Rivers and streams

  • F1.1 Permanent upland streams

  • F1.2 Permanent lowland rivers

  • F1.3 Freeze-thaw rivers and streams

  • F1.4 Seasonal upland streams

  • F1.5 Seasonal lowland rivers

  • F1.6 Episodic arid rivers

  • F1.7 Large lowland rivers

F2 Lakes

  • F2.1 Large permanent freshwater lakes

  • F2.2 Small permanent freshwater lakes

  • F2.3 Seasonal freshwater lakes

  • F2.4 Freeze-thaw freshwater lakes

  • F2.5 Ephemeral freshwater lakes

  • F2.6 Permanent salt and soda lakes

  • F2.7 Ephemeral salt lakes

  • F2.8 Artesian springs and oases

  • F2.9 Geothermal pools and wetlands

  • F2.10 Subglacial lakes

F3 Artificial fresh waters

  • F3.1 Large reservoirs

  • F3.2 Constructed lacustrine wetlands

  • F3.3 Rice paddies

  • F3.4 Freshwater aquafarms

  • F3.5 Canals, ditches and drains

FM1 Semi-confined transitional waters

  • FM1.1 Deepwater coastal inlets

  • FM1.2 Permanently open riverine estuaries and bays

  • FM1.3 Intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons


M Marine shelves

  • M1.1 Seagrass meadows

  • M1.2 Kelp forests

  • M1.3 Photic coral reefs

  • M1.4 Shellfish beds and reefs

  • M1.5 Photo-limited marine animal forests

  • M1.6 Subtidal rocky reefs

  • M1.7 Subtidal sand beds

  • M1.8 Subtidal mud plains

  • M1.9 Upwelling zones

M2 Pelagic ocean waters

  • M2.1 Epipelagic ocean waters

  • M2.2 Mesopelagic ocean waters

  • M2.3 Bathypelagic ocean waters

  • M2.4 Abyssopelagic ocean waters

  • M2.5 Sea ice

M3 Deep sea floors

  • M3.1 Continental and island slopes

  • M3.2 Marine canyons

  • M3.3 Abyssal plains

  • M3.4 Seamounts, ridges and plateaus

  • M3.5 Deepwater biogenic beds

  • M3.6 Hadal trenches and troughs

  • M3.7 Chemosynthetically-based ecosystems

M4 Anthropogenic marine systems

  • M4.1 Submerged artificial structures

  • M4.2 Marine aquafarms

Shoreline Systems

MT1 Shoreline systems

  • MT1.1 Rocky shores

  • MT1.2 Muddy shores

  • MT1.3 Sandy shores

  • MT1.4 Boulder and cobble shores

MT2 Supralittoral coastal systems

  • MT2.1 Coastal shrublands and grasslands

MT3 Anthropogenic shorelines

  • MT3.1 Artificial shores

MFT1 Brackish tidal systems

  • MFT1.1 Coastal river deltas

  • MFT1.2 Intertidal forests and shrublands

  • MFT1.3 Coastal saltmarshes and reedbeds

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