IPBES Global Assessment of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (NCP)

Source: IPBES 2019

The IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services highlights the urgent decline of nature and its vital contributions to humanity, categorized as Nature's Contributions to People (NCP). The report emphasizes that human activities, driven by various socio-economic factors, have significantly altered 75% of Earth's land, leading to biodiversity loss and diminished ecosystem functions. Despite this, nature remains essential for achieving Sustainable Development Goals. A transformational change is needed, involving systemic shifts in how we value and interact with nature. This change must consider not just stocks—current conditions of biodiversity and ecosystems—but also flows, the dynamic processes that maintain these systems, often guided by international governance such as the UN framework. The report argues that sustainable, equitable solutions are still attainable, but require immediate, concerted efforts.

Ecosystem Services Categories

2013 version used: Provisioning; Regulating; Cultural; and Nature’s Gifts

2017 moves to NCP and uses: Regulating NCP; Non-material NCP; Material NCP

Ecosystem Services Classified

Formation, Protection & Decontamination of Soils & Sediments

Regulation of Freshwater & Coastal Water Quality

Regulation of Air Quality

Regulation of Climate

Medicinal, Biochemical & Genetic Resources

Materials & Assistance


Regulation of Detrimental Organisms & Biological Processes

Regulation of Ocean Acidification

Supporting Identities

Regulation of Hazards & Extreme Events

Maintenance of Options

Habitat Creation & Maintenance

Physical & Psychological Experiences

Food & Feed

Pollination & Dispersal of Seeds & Other Propagules

Learning & Inspiration

Regulation of Freshwater Quantity, Location & Timing

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