Ecosystem Services Classification

Our comparative analysis of the selected ecosystem services frameworks revealed a consistent set of 19 top-level ecosystem services that were commonly referenced and utilized across all studies. These frameworks varied in scope ranging between 10 to 27 key ecosystem services. The 19 services identified as consistent across all frameworks are:

Common Ecosystem Services Classes

Raw Materials



Water Security (supply & storage)


Medicinal & Genetic

Climate Regulation

Air Quality

Water Quality (filtration)

Hazard Risk Reduction


Erosion Control

Biological Control


Recreation & Tourism

Research & Education


Cultural & Spiritual


For each ecosystem service and corresponding framework, we have compiled the following information where available:

  • Name Used

  • Service Category (e.g., Provisioning, Supporting)

  • Definition

  • Economic Value Calculated

  • Applicable Valuation Methods (e.g., Travel Cost, Hedonic Pricing, Contingent Valuation)

  • Metrics for Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment

As the top level categories varied across frameworks, we have roughly sorted them by Provisioning, Regulating, and Cultural Services.

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