Name Used: Ecosystem and Species Appreciation

Service Category: Flows related to non-use values

Definition: Ecosystem and species appreciation concerns the well-being that people derive from the existence and preservation of the environment for current and future generations, irrespective of any direct or indirect use. This is most commonly associated with non-use values.

See Valuation Methods Appendix for Economic Value, Valuation Methods, and Metrics.


Name Used: Other Characteristics That Have a Non-Use Value

Service Category: Cultural

Definition: Other Biotic or Abiotic Characteristics that Have a Non-Use Value refers to the inherent worth of natural elements, irrespective of their utility for human activities. This includes characteristics or features of living systems with existence value, meaning they are valued simply for their presence, and those with bequest value, implying they are valued for their potential significance to future generations. Both are quantified by the type of living system or environmental setting. The category also includes natural, abiotic features that hold either existence or bequest values, measured by their types and amounts. These non-use values emphasize the intrinsic importance of preserving and respecting the natural environment, beyond its immediate practical applications.

Economic Value Calculated: No

Valuation Methods: n/a

Metrics: included in definition

ESVD 2020

Name Used: Existence and bequest ‘values’

Service Category: Cultural

Definition: Existence and bequest ‘values’ as categorized by TEEB in ESVD include Existence value and Bequest value.

Economic Value Calculated: Yes

Valuation Methods: The ESVD 2020 report offers a total of 4,042 value estimates, with 97 specific to Existence and bequest ‘values’. See the Valuation Methods Appendix.

Metrics: $/ha/yr; ESVD is working on other qualitative and quantitative metrics.


Name Used: Existence Value

Service Category: Information

Definition: Well-being gained by the knowledge that an environmental resource exists, even without on-site use of that resource

Economic Value Calculated: Yes

Valuation Methods: Replacement Cost, Meta-Analysis

Metrics: Nowak et al. (2002) approached the valuation of trees through the lens of their existence value, estimating this value based on replacement costs in eight different cities. Using field data and the valuation methods outlined by the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers, they assessed trees as structural assets to determine compensatory values for entire tree populations. The values were initially estimated in terms of 2001 USD per square meter over the life span of a tree. These were later converted to a per-acre basis and divided by the average life span of trees to arrive at annual values. Finally, these annualized values were adjusted to 2021 USD per acre per year for standardized comparison.


Name Used: Maintenance of options

Service Category: Non-material NCP (Non-Material)

Definition: Capacity of ecosystems, habitats, species or genotypes to keep options open in order to support a good quality of life. This includes benefits associated with the continued existence of a variety of biological entities, potential future benefits from yet unknown discoveries, and anticipated benefits from ongoing biological evolution.

Economic Value Calculated: No

Valuation Methods: n/a

Metrics: Species’ survival probability; Phylogenetic diversity

Name Used: Physical and psychological experiences

Service Category: Non-material NCP (Non-Material)

Definition: Provision, by landscapes, seascapes, habitats or organisms, of opportunities for physically and psychologically beneficial activities, healing, relaxation, recreation, leisure, tourism and aesthetic enjoyment based on the close contact with nature.

Economic Value Calculated: No

Valuation Methods: n/a

Metrics: Area of natural and traditional landscapes and seascapes


Not classified in ENCORE as it is considered a Cultural Service.

TNFD Environmental Assets & Ecosystem Services



Not classified in InVEST.

Swiss Re BES Index

Not listed as an ES category but does reference IPBES - NCP framework.

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