Name Used: Nursery Population and Habitat Maintenance Services

Service Category: Regulating and maintenance services

Definition: Nursery population and habitat maintenance services are the ecosystem contributions necessary for sustaining populations of species that economic units ultimately use or enjoy either through the maintenance of habitats (e.g., for nurseries or migration) or the protection of natural gene pools. This service is an intermediate service and may input to a number of different final ecosystem services including biomass provision and recreation-related services.

See Valuation Methods Appendix for Economic Value, Valuation Methods, and Metrics.


Name Used: Lifecycle Maintenance, Habitat & Gene Pool Protection

Service Category: Regulation and Maintenance

Definition: Lifecycle Maintenance, Habitat, and Gene Pool Protection refers to the natural processes essential for species propagation and survival. This includes pollination, quantified by the amount of pollen transferred and the type of pollinator involved; seed dispersal, measured by the amount of seeds and the dispersal agents such as animals or wind; and the maintenance of nursery populations and habitats, which also includes the protection of genetic diversity, assessed by the amount and source of individuals in these habitats. These functions are critical for the perpetuation of biodiversity and ecosystem health.

Economic Value Calculated: No

Valuation Methods: n/a

Metrics: included in definition

Economic Value Calculated: No

Valuation Methods: n/a

Metrics: included in definition

ESVD 2020

Name Used: Maintenance of species’ life cycles (incl. nursery service)

Service Category: Habitat

Definition: Habitat as categorized by TEEB in ESVD include Nursery service, Refugia for migratory and resident species.

Economic Value Calculated: Yes

Valuation Methods: The ESVD 2020 report offers a total of 4,042 value estimates, with 38 specific to Maintenance of species’ life cycles (incl. nursery service). See the Valuation Methods Appendix.

Metrics: $/ha/yr; ESVD is working on other qualitative and quantitative metrics.


Name Used: Habitat

Service Category: Supporting

Definition: Providing shelter, promoting growth of species, and maintaining biological diversity

Economic Value Calculated: Yes

Valuation Methods: Meta-Analysis, Contingent valuation, Choice experiment, Productivity Value, Production Function


Coastal Wetland: We used a function transfer method to create a U.S.-specific economic value for wetlands. We relied on multiple meta-analyses, including one with an R^2 of 0.753 by Adusumilli (2015) and another with an R^2 of 0.582 by Woodward and Wui (2001). Model variables were set to emphasize coastal wetlands and habitat provisioning, and adjusted for average household income, wetland size, and GDP per capita. The results were converted to 2021 USD per acre per year. Separately, Johnston et al. (2002) assessed the economic value of nursery and habitat services in the Peconic Estuary System. Hazen and Sawyer (2008) found that both residents and visitors were willing to pay a one-time tax to protect the Indian River Lagoon in Florida.

Inland Wetlands: We applied a function transfer method to derive a U.S.-specific value for wetlands, based on multiple meta-analyses. Adusumilli (2015) had an adjusted R^2 of 0.753, while Woodward and Wui (2001) had an R^2 of 0.582. Model variables focused on freshwater or inland wetlands and habitat provisioning. Adjustments were made for average household income, wetland size, and GDP per capita in the U.S., and results were converted to 2021 USD per acre per year.

Urban and Rural Green Open Space: We used a function transfer method to calculate a U.S.-specific value for green open spaces based on Bockarjova et al. (2020), which had an adjusted R^2 of 0.699. Model variables were set to average "park" and "small urban green" types, and “peri-urban greenspace” for Rural, with "biodiversity and habitat" emphasized. Adjustments were made for current U.S. GDP per capita and average population density. The results, initially in 2016 USD per hectare per year, were converted to 2021 USD per acre per year.

Riparian: Johnston et al. (2002) calculated the annual value of existing and restored wetlands and riparian areas, considering both food web productivity and habitat values. Berrens et al. (2000) estimated nonuse value for instream flows, highlighting the protection of biodiversity and riparian zones. Their study indicated significant nonmarket benefits in preserving these areas, especially for endangered fish species.

Coral Reefs: Brander and van Beukering (2013) performed a meta-analysis on the value of U.S. coral reefs. A function transfer method was used to generate a national estimate. The model had 69 observations and an adjusted R^2 of 0.44. Variables included average U.S. GDP per capita, regional coral cover in hectares, and setting the "nonuse" ecosystem service variable to 1. The value was originally in 2007 USD per hectare per year and was converted to 2021 USD per acre per year.


Name Used: Habitat creation and maintenance

Service Category: Regulating NCP (Regulation Of Environmental Processes)

Definition: The formation and continued production, by ecosystems or organisms within them, of ecological conditions necessary or favorable for living beings of direct or indirect importance to humans. E.g. growing sites for plants, nesting, feeding, and mating sites for animals, resting and overwintering areas for migratory mammals, birds and butterflies, roosting places for agricultural pests and disease vectors, nurseries for juvenile stages of fish, habitat creation at different soil depths by invertebrates.

Economic Value Calculated: No

Valuation Methods: n/a

Metrics: Extent of suitable habitat, Biodiversity intactness


Name Used: Maintain nursery habitats

Service Category: Regulation & Maintenance

Definition: Habitats that significantly contribute to the reproduction of individuals from a particular species.

Economic Value Calculated: No

Valuation Methods:

Metrics: Food provision

TNFD Environmental Assets & Ecosystem Services



Name Used: Habitat and Species Risk Assessment

Service Category: Habitat and Species Conservation, Ecosystem Services

Definition: Evaluates risks to coastal, marine, and terrestrial habitats and species based on exposure to human activities and the consequences of that exposure for ecosystem services.

Economic Value Calculated: No

Valuation Methods: Identifies relative risk to habitat quality and function, and species sustainability.

Metrics: Ecosystem risk map, risk maps for individual habitats or species, risk plots, summary tables of risk by subregion.

Name Used: Habitat Quality

Service Category: Biodiversity Conservation, Ecosystem Services

Definition: Estimates the extent and state of degradation of habitat and vegetation types across a landscape, based on habitat quality and rarity as proxies for biodiversity.

Economic Value Calculated: No

Valuation Methods: Provides relative assessments of habitat quality, degradation, and rarity but does not monetize biodiversity.

Metrics: Habitat quality maps, habitat rarity maps, relative extent and degradation of different types of habitats, and changes over time.

Swiss Re BES Index

Name Used: Habitat Intactness

Service Category: Regulating Service

Definition: Represents the average proportion of natural biodiversity remaining in local ecosystems, and its capacity to offer essential ecosystem services for human well-being.

Economic Value Calculated: No

Valuation Methods: n/a

Metrics: (Terrestrial) Biodiversity Intactness Index % as an indicator. The index models the average abundance of originally present species relative to their abundance in an intact ecosystem, considering factors like land use, land use intensity, human population density, and proximity to the nearest road.

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