Core Benefits Framework

The Core Benefits Framework extends Nature's Core Benefits by incorporating ecosystem and land cover classifications, alongside the tangible dimension of real assets, to render natural capital investable.

Ecological Stocks & Flows

The benefits nature provides are commonly referred to as environmental assets which are comprised of stocks and flows. Ecosystem services are the "flows" and ecosystem assets are the "stocks" of those benefits.

The valuation of these stocks and flows is paramount for ecosystem protection and restoration. Serving as the basis for proper valuation, we conducted an exhaustive review of over 120 Ecosystem Services, Natural Capital, Land Cover, and Real Assets classification and valuation frameworks.

Real assets in a nature framework? It's strategic. In a world of rules, we turn legal 'limitations' into tools for sustainable impact. Laws aren't barriers; they're opportunities.

The Core Benefits Framework identifies 14 "stocks" of ecosystems and 21 "flows" of ecological benefits.

Ecosystem STOCKSCore Benefits FLOWS

Cultivated & Developed

Raw Materials

Urban Open Space


Rural Open Space


Rivers & Lakes

Water Abundance

Inland Wetlands

Healthy Soils

Tropical Forests

Medicinal & Genetic

Temperate Forests

Climate Stability

Boreal Forests

Clean Air

Coastal Systems

Clean Water


Risk Resilience



Tropical Forests

Erosion Control


Pest & Disease Control



Recreation & Experiences

Research & Learning

Aesthetic & Sensory

Art & Inspiration

Existence & Legacy

Land Utilization

Resource Utilization

Detailed methodology available in the Appendix

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