FEMA Ecosystem Service Value Updates

Source: FEMA June 2022

Primarily utilizes the seminal Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2001) categories.

FEMA has updated its approach to hazard mitigation by incorporating Ecosystem Service Values (ESV) into its Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) Toolkit, measured in terms of dollars per acre per year ($/ac/yr). These updates extend across nine different land cover and ecosystem types and 14 categories of ecosystem services. The inclusion of ESV not only makes the toolkit more comprehensive but also simplifies the application process for subapplicants seeking to implement Nature-Based Solutions (NBS). Recent policy changes have expanded eligible NBS activities and eliminated previous benefit-cost ratio requirements, making it easier for projects focused on ecological benefits to receive funding. This marks a shift towards more sustainable and equitable hazard mitigation strategies.

Ecosystem Services Categories

Provisioning; Regulating; Supporting; Information

Ecosystem Services Classified

The 14 in bold have calculated economic values in $/ac/yr.

Energy and Raw Materials

Food Provisioning

Medicinal Resources

Ornamental Resources

Water Storage

Air Quality

Biological Control

Climate Regulation

Hazard Risk Reduction


Soil Formation

Soil Quality

Erosion Control

Water Filtration

Water Supply


Nutrient Cycling

Aesthetic Value

Existence Value

Cultural Value

Research and Education


Last updated